New 1

Now Main menu , Sub menu taps on test

ရခိုင္ပဋိပကၡ စံုစမ္းေရး ေကာ္မရွင္က ေစလႊတ္သည့္ ေကာ္မရွင္ သုေတသန အဖြဲ႕ တစ္ခုသည္ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာ တို႔၏ ေျဖၾကားခ်က္မ်ားကို မဟုတ္မမွန္ ေရးသြင္းၾကသည္ဟု သတင္းရရွိသည္။

Friday, July 5, 2013

G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို စိတ္ခ်လက္ခ် သံုးၾကရေအာင္

G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို စိတ္ခ်လက္ခ် သံုးၾကရေအာင္






ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ဒီအေၾကာင္းအရာ ေလးကို ေရးေပးခ်င္ တာေတာ့ ၾကာပါျပီ .. ဒါေပမယ့္ ေရးမယ္လုပ္လိုက္ မေရးျဖစ္လိုက္ ျဖစ္ေနလို႔အခုမွပဲ ေရးျဖစ္သြားတာပါ .. ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔  လက္ရွိ အသံုးျပဴေနၾကတဲ့ G-Mail အေကာင့္ေတြနဲ႔ ပါတ္သတ္ျပီး လြယ္လြယ္ကူကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္လို႔ ရမယ့္ နည္းလမ္းေလးမို႔ ေရးေပးခ်င္တာပါ .. ဘာပဲ ေျပာေျပာ ဒီနည္းလမ္းေလးကို သိထားျပီ ဆိုတာနဲ႔  G-Mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ Password ေမ့သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ အခုေျပာတဲ့ နည္းလမ္းေလးအတုိင္း အလြယ္တကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္လို႔ ရမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ဒါေလးေတြက ခက္ခက္ခဲခဲ နည္းလမ္း တစ္ခုေတာ့မဟုတ္ပါဘူး .. ပံုမွန္ Password Recovery လုပ္တဲ့ နည္းလမ္းေလးပါပဲ .. ဒါေပမယ့္ အမ်ားစုက မသိၾကေတာ့ ခက္ခက္ခဲခဲေတြ ေလ်ာက္ေတြး ကုန္ၾကတာပါ .. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ အခုေျပာျပမဲ့ Recovery နည္းလမ္းေလးေတြကိုေတာ့ အားလံုးကို သိထားေစခ်င္ပါတယ္ .. ဒါမွလည္း မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ Password အခ်ိန္းခံလိုက္ရရင္ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ အလြယ္တကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္လို႔ ရမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. 

အရင္ဆံုး မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို အလြယ္တကူ Recovey ျပန္လုပ္ ေပးႏိုင္ဖို႔ အတြက္ မိမိတို႔ရဲ႕ G-Mail အေကာင့္ Personal Setting ေလးေတြကိုေတာ့ ေအာက္မွာ ေဖာ္ျပထားတဲ့ နည္းလမ္းေလးအတိုင္း သြားျပီး စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ျပင္ဆင္ထားဖို႔ လိုအပ္ပါလိမ့္မယ္ .. အရင္ဆံုး မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို၀င္လိုက္ပါ .. ျပီးရင္ ေအာက္က ပံုမွာ ျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း Account Setting ကိုသြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ဒီေအာက္က ပံုကေတာ့ Google + အသံုးျပဳသူေတြရဲ႕ Personal Setting ပံုျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ေအာက္ပံုမွာ ျပထားတဲ့ အတိုင္း Change Recovery Option ကိုသြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ေအာက္ပံုကေတာ့ ပံုမွန္အတိုင္း Google + အသံုးမျပဳတဲ့ သူေတြရဲ႕ Personal Setting ပဲျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ပံုမွာျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း Recover your password ကိုသြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ေအာက္ပံုမွာျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း Verify လုပ္ေပးလိုက္ပါ ..


ေအာက္မွာ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ 1 နဲ႔ 2 ဆိုျပီး ျပေပးထားပါတယ္ .. နံပါတ္ ( )ကေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ recovery email address ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. Edit ကိုႏွိပ္ျပီး မိမိတို႔ စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ အေကာင့္တစ္ခုကို ေျပာင္းလုိ႔ရပါတယ္ .. ဒါမွသာ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္တဲ့ အခါမွာ Recovery Email Address ကိုအလြယ္တကူ ျပန္ျပီး အသံုးျပဳႏိုင္မွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ ..  နံပါတ္ ( ) ကေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ Security question ကို မိမိတို႔စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ေျပာင္းေပးဖို႔ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. Edit ကိုႏွိပ္ျပီး မိမိတို႔စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ျပင္လို႔ ရပါတယ္ ..


ေအာက္ပံုအတိုင္း Recovery Email နဲ႔ Security question ကို မိမိတို႔စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ျပင္ဆင္ျပီးသြားျပီ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ Save လိုက္ယံုပါပဲ ..

ဒါကေတာ့ မိမိတို႔ G-mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ ပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ေမ့သြားလို႔ပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ အလြယ္တကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္ႏိုင္ေအာင္ ၾကိဳတင္ျပင္ဆင္ ထားျခင္း ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ . အေပၚမွာ ျပင္ခဲ့တဲ့ အခ်က္ေတြကို ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ အေကာင့္စေဖာက္ထဲက ျဖည့္ခဲ့ရတာပါ .. ဒါေပမယ့္မဲ့ အေကာင့္ေဖာက္တဲ့ အခ်ိန္မွာ အမ်ားစုက အမွု႔မဲ့ အမွတ္မဲ့ပဲ ထည့္လိုက္ၾကတာ ျဖစ္တဲ့အတြက္ ျပန္လည္ ျပင္ဆင္လို႔ ရေအာင္ ေဖာ္ျပေပးတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ ..  ဒါဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ျပင္ဆင္ျခင္း အပိုင္းျပီးပါျပီ ..

ဆက္ျပီးေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ Recovery ဘယ္လို လုပ္ရမယ္ ဆိုတာကို ေျပာျပေပးပါမယ္ .. မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ေမ့သြားလို႔ပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္ဖို႔ အတြက္ အရင္ဆံုး ေအာက္မွာ ေဖာ္ျပေပးထားတဲ့ လင့္ေလးကို သြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ျပီးရင္ ေအာက္ပံုမွာျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း မိမိတို႔ Recovery လုပ္ခ်င္တဲ့ အေကာင့္ကို ရိုက္ထည့္ျပီး Submit ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. 



ျပီးရင္ ေအာက္မွာ ေဖာ္ျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း စာလံုးေလးေတြကို ျဖည့္ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. ျပီးရင္Continue ေပးလိုက္ပါ ..



ဒီေအာက္က အဆင့္ကို ေရာက္ျပီ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ အေပၚက  Personal Setting မွာမိမိတို႔ စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ျပင္ဆင္ခဲ့တဲ့ Recovery Email  နဲ႔ Security question ကိုျဖည့္ခိုင္းပါလိမ့္မယ္ .. ၾကိဳက္တဲ့ တစ္ခုကို ျဖည့္ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. Recover Email ကိုေရြးခ်ယ္တယ္ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ Pessword Rest တဲ့လင့္ကို ေမးလ္ထဲကို Recovery Email ဆိုျပီး ျဖည့္ခဲ့တဲ့ ေမးလ္ထဲကို ပို႔ေပးမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ျပီးရင္ေတာ့ Continue ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. 


အေပၚက အဆင့္အတိုင္း ျပီးသြားျပီ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ေအာက္က ပံုမွာ ျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း မိမိတို႔ စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ Password အသစ္ကို ရိုက္ထည့္ျပီး  .. Rest Password ေပးလိုက္ယံုပါပဲ ..


G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို စိတ္ခ်လက္ခ် သံုးၾကရေအာင္

G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို စိတ္ခ်လက္ခ် သံုးၾကရေအာင္






ကၽြန္ေတာ္ ဒီအေၾကာင္းအရာ ေလးကို ေရးေပးခ်င္ တာေတာ့ ၾကာပါျပီ .. ဒါေပမယ့္ ေရးမယ္လုပ္လိုက္ မေရးျဖစ္လိုက္ ျဖစ္ေနလို႔အခုမွပဲ ေရးျဖစ္သြားတာပါ .. ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔  လက္ရွိ အသံုးျပဴေနၾကတဲ့ G-Mail အေကာင့္ေတြနဲ႔ ပါတ္သတ္ျပီး လြယ္လြယ္ကူကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္လို႔ ရမယ့္ နည္းလမ္းေလးမို႔ ေရးေပးခ်င္တာပါ .. ဘာပဲ ေျပာေျပာ ဒီနည္းလမ္းေလးကို သိထားျပီ ဆိုတာနဲ႔  G-Mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ Password ေမ့သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ အခုေျပာတဲ့ နည္းလမ္းေလးအတုိင္း အလြယ္တကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္လို႔ ရမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ဒါေလးေတြက ခက္ခက္ခဲခဲ နည္းလမ္း တစ္ခုေတာ့မဟုတ္ပါဘူး .. ပံုမွန္ Password Recovery လုပ္တဲ့ နည္းလမ္းေလးပါပဲ .. ဒါေပမယ့္ အမ်ားစုက မသိၾကေတာ့ ခက္ခက္ခဲခဲေတြ ေလ်ာက္ေတြး ကုန္ၾကတာပါ .. ကၽြန္ေတာ္ အခုေျပာျပမဲ့ Recovery နည္းလမ္းေလးေတြကိုေတာ့ အားလံုးကို သိထားေစခ်င္ပါတယ္ .. ဒါမွလည္း မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ Password အခ်ိန္းခံလိုက္ရရင္ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ အလြယ္တကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္လို႔ ရမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. 

အရင္ဆံုး မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို အလြယ္တကူ Recovey ျပန္လုပ္ ေပးႏိုင္ဖို႔ အတြက္ မိမိတို႔ရဲ႕ G-Mail အေကာင့္ Personal Setting ေလးေတြကိုေတာ့ ေအာက္မွာ ေဖာ္ျပထားတဲ့ နည္းလမ္းေလးအတိုင္း သြားျပီး စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ျပင္ဆင္ထားဖို႔ လိုအပ္ပါလိမ့္မယ္ .. အရင္ဆံုး မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ကို၀င္လိုက္ပါ .. ျပီးရင္ ေအာက္က ပံုမွာ ျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း Account Setting ကိုသြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ဒီေအာက္က ပံုကေတာ့ Google + အသံုးျပဳသူေတြရဲ႕ Personal Setting ပံုျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ေအာက္ပံုမွာ ျပထားတဲ့ အတိုင္း Change Recovery Option ကိုသြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ေအာက္ပံုကေတာ့ ပံုမွန္အတိုင္း Google + အသံုးမျပဳတဲ့ သူေတြရဲ႕ Personal Setting ပဲျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ပံုမွာျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း Recover your password ကိုသြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ေအာက္ပံုမွာျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း Verify လုပ္ေပးလိုက္ပါ ..


ေအာက္မွာ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ 1 နဲ႔ 2 ဆိုျပီး ျပေပးထားပါတယ္ .. နံပါတ္ ( )ကေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ recovery email address ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. Edit ကိုႏွိပ္ျပီး မိမိတို႔ စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ အေကာင့္တစ္ခုကို ေျပာင္းလုိ႔ရပါတယ္ .. ဒါမွသာ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္တဲ့ အခါမွာ Recovery Email Address ကိုအလြယ္တကူ ျပန္ျပီး အသံုးျပဳႏိုင္မွာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ ..  နံပါတ္ ( ) ကေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ Security question ကို မိမိတို႔စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ေျပာင္းေပးဖို႔ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. Edit ကိုႏွိပ္ျပီး မိမိတို႔စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ျပင္လို႔ ရပါတယ္ ..


ေအာက္ပံုအတိုင္း Recovery Email နဲ႔ Security question ကို မိမိတို႔စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ျပင္ဆင္ျပီးသြားျပီ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ Save လိုက္ယံုပါပဲ ..

ဒါကေတာ့ မိမိတို႔ G-mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ ပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ေမ့သြားလို႔ပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ အလြယ္တကူ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္ႏိုင္ေအာင္ ၾကိဳတင္ျပင္ဆင္ ထားျခင္း ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ . အေပၚမွာ ျပင္ခဲ့တဲ့ အခ်က္ေတြကို ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ အေကာင့္စေဖာက္ထဲက ျဖည့္ခဲ့ရတာပါ .. ဒါေပမယ့္မဲ့ အေကာင့္ေဖာက္တဲ့ အခ်ိန္မွာ အမ်ားစုက အမွု႔မဲ့ အမွတ္မဲ့ပဲ ထည့္လိုက္ၾကတာ ျဖစ္တဲ့အတြက္ ျပန္လည္ ျပင္ဆင္လို႔ ရေအာင္ ေဖာ္ျပေပးတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္ ..  ဒါဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ျပင္ဆင္ျခင္း အပိုင္းျပီးပါျပီ ..

ဆက္ျပီးေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ Recovery ဘယ္လို လုပ္ရမယ္ ဆိုတာကို ေျပာျပေပးပါမယ္ .. မိမိတို႔ G-Mail အေကာင့္ Password ေပ်ာက္သြားလို႔ပဲ ျဖစ္ျဖစ္ ေမ့သြားလို႔ပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ Recovery ျပန္လုပ္ဖို႔ အတြက္ အရင္ဆံုး ေအာက္မွာ ေဖာ္ျပေပးထားတဲ့ လင့္ေလးကို သြားလိုက္ပါ ..


ျပီးရင္ ေအာက္ပံုမွာျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း မိမိတို႔ Recovery လုပ္ခ်င္တဲ့ အေကာင့္ကို ရိုက္ထည့္ျပီး Submit ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. 



ျပီးရင္ ေအာက္မွာ ေဖာ္ျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း စာလံုးေလးေတြကို ျဖည့္ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. ျပီးရင္Continue ေပးလိုက္ပါ ..



ဒီေအာက္က အဆင့္ကို ေရာက္ျပီ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ အေပၚက  Personal Setting မွာမိမိတို႔ စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ ျပင္ဆင္ခဲ့တဲ့ Recovery Email  နဲ႔ Security question ကိုျဖည့္ခိုင္းပါလိမ့္မယ္ .. ၾကိဳက္တဲ့ တစ္ခုကို ျဖည့္ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. Recover Email ကိုေရြးခ်ယ္တယ္ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ Pessword Rest တဲ့လင့္ကို ေမးလ္ထဲကို Recovery Email ဆိုျပီး ျဖည့္ခဲ့တဲ့ ေမးလ္ထဲကို ပို႔ေပးမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္ .. ျပီးရင္ေတာ့ Continue ေပးလိုက္ပါ .. 


အေပၚက အဆင့္အတိုင္း ျပီးသြားျပီ ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ ေအာက္က ပံုမွာ ျပထားတဲ့အတိုင္း မိမိတို႔ စိတ္ၾကိဳက္ Password အသစ္ကို ရိုက္ထည့္ျပီး  .. Rest Password ေပးလိုက္ယံုပါပဲ ..


Monday, July 1, 2013

ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား အေထာက္အပံ့မ်ား ဆုိးရြားစြာ လုိအပ္လ်က္ရွိ

ေပါက္ေတာ ဒုကၡသည္ စခန္း (ဓါတ္ပုံ - RB News)
ေမာင္အာသာ 
RB News 
18.5.2013 
ေပါက္ေတာ ။ ။ ရခုိင္ ျပည္နယ္၊ ေပါက္ေတာ ၿမဳိ႕နယ္၊ ဆင္တက္ေမာ္ရွိ ဒုကၡသည္ စခန္းရွိ ရုိဟင္ဂ်ာ ဒုကၡ သည္ မ်ားမွာ လူသားခ်င္း စာနာေသာ အေထာက္ အပံ့မ်ား အေရး တႀကီး လုိအပ္ လ်က္ရွိေၾကာင္း သိရ သည္။ မဟာဆင္ မုန္တုိင္း ေရွာင္ရန္ ငွက္ေခ်ာင္း ဒုကၡသည္ စခန္းမွ ဒုကၡသည္ မ်ားေရာက္ရွိ လာ ၿပီးေနာက္ ဒုကၡသည္ ဦးေရ တုိးပြားလာၿပီး စားေရး ေသာက္ေရး ခက္ခဲ လာျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။ 
“ကၽြန္ေတာ္တုိ႔ မုန္တုိင္း ေရွာင္ဖုိ႔ ေနရာရွာရင္း ဒီကုိေရာက္ လာတာ။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တုိ႔ တားျမစ္ တာေတြ မ်ားေတာ့ ဘာမွ ယူလာလုိ႔ မရဘူး။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တုိ႔မွာ စားဖုိ႔ အစား အေသာက္ မရွိဘူး။ ေနဖုိ႔ ေနရာ မရွိဘူး။ ၀တ္စရာ အ၀တ္ မရွိဘူး။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တုိ႔ ရဲ့မူလ ေနရာကုိ လည္း သြားလုိ႔ မရေသး ဘူး” ဟု ဒုကၡသည္ တစ္ ဦးမွ RB News သုိ႔ေျပာသည္။

NGO Law Monitor: Bangladesh


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Last updated 8 May 2013

Introduction

Bangladesh is endowed with a rich tradition and culture of philanthropy. Religions that attempted to overcome social stratification and seclusion flourished there in past centuries. The civic tradition was reinforced following the devastating war for liberation in 1971, when a host of “self-help groups” emerged to provide relief and rehabilitation, and to support development.  At the same time, however, given the legacy of colonial and authoritarian military administration, civil society remains in a formative stage.
Today in Bangladesh, mainstream civil society organizations (CSOs) are mostly philanthropic groups, citizen coalitions, and private voluntary agencies.  Many CSOs seek to serve under-served or neglected populations, to expand the freedom of or to empower people, to engage in advocacy for social change, and to provide services.  The exact number of CSOs in Bangladesh is unknown.  According to one estimate, the number of CSOs registered with various governmental authorities totals 250,000.  Among these, it is estimated that less than 50,000 organizations are active.
Bangladesh has a unitary government with a Westminster-style parliamentary system, governed by a Constitution that is the supreme law of the Republic.

At a Glance

Organizational Forms Societies Trusts Non-profit companies
Registration Body Registrar of Companies Registrar of Trusts Registrar of Companies
Approximate Number At least 21 members At least 15 members At least 11 members
Barriers to Entry Foreigners, non-citizens, and minors prohibited from serving as founders.

Bureaucratic hurdles delay the registration process
Foreigners, non-citizens, and minors prohibited from serving as founders.

Bureaucratic hurdles delay the registration process
Foreigners, non-citizens, and minors prohibited from serving as founders.

Bureaucratic hurdles delay the registration process
Barriers to Activities All forms of CSOs are subject to termination for the non-submission of reports.

Annual reports are mandatory.

Government representatives may attend internal CSO meetings.
All forms of CSOs are subject to termination for the non-submission of reports.

Annual reports are mandatory.

Government representatives may attend internal CSO meetings.
All forms of CSOs are subject to termination for the non-submission of reports.

Annual reports are mandatory.

Government representatives may attend internal CSO meetings.
Barriers to Speech and/or Advocacy No legal barriers No legal barriers No legal barriers
Barriers to International Contact No legal barriers No legal barriers No legal barriers
Barriers to Resources A CSO seeking to receive or use foreign donations must obtain approval, known as FD Registration, from the NGOAB A CSO seeking to receive or use foreign donations must obtain approval, known as FD Registration, from the NGOAB A CSO seeking to receive or use foreign donations must obtain approval, known as FD Registration, from the NGOAB

Key Indicators

Population 161,083,804 (2012 est.)
Capital Dhaka
Type of Government Parliamentary Democracy
Life Expectancy at Birth Male: 68.21 years
Female: 71.98 years (2011 est.)
Literacy Rate Male: 54%
Female: 41.4% (2008)
Religious Groups Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, others 0.9% (2004)
Ethnic Groups Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)
GDP Per Capita $1700 (2011 est.)
Source: The World Factbook 2009. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2010.

International Rankings

Ranking Body Rank Ranking Scale
(best - worst possible)
UN Human Development Index 146 (2011) 1 – 182
World Bank Rule of Law Index 26.5 (2010) 100 – 0
World Bank Voice & Accountability Index 38.4 (2010) 100 – 0
Transparency International 120 (2011) 1 180
Freedom House: Freedom in the World Status: Partly Free
Political Rights Score: 3
Civil Liberties Score: 4
Free/Partly Free/Not Free
1 – 7
1 – 7
Foreign Policy: Failed States Index Rank: 29 (2012)
Human Rights: 7.1
177 – 1
0 – 10

Legal Snapshot

International and Regional Human Rights Agreements

Key International Agreements Ratification* Year
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) Yes 2000
Optional Protocol to ICCPR (ICCPR-OP1) No --
International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) Yes 1998
Optional Protocol to ICESCR (OP-ICESCR) No --
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) Yes 1979
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) Yes 1984
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (OP-CEDAW) Yes 2000
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Yes 1990
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (ICRMW) No --
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) No --
Key Regional Agreements Ratification* Year
South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Yes 1985
South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) Yes 1994
* Category includes ratification, accession, or succession to the treaty

Constitutional Framework

The Constitution of Bangladesh was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh on November 4, 1972.  Relevant clauses corresponding to fundamental rights enunciated in the Constitution include:
  • 37. Freedom of assembly: Every citizen shall have the right to assemble and to participate in public meetings and processions peacefully and without arms, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of public order health.
  • 38. Freedom of association: Every citizen shall have the right to form associations or unions, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of morality or public order.
  • 39. Freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech: (i) Freedom of thought and conscience is guaranteed. (ii) Subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign states, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence (a) the right of every citizen to freedom of speech and expression; and freedom of the press, are guaranteed.

National Laws and Regulations Affecting Sector

Two broad categories of legislation – laws of incorporation and regulatory laws – make up the legal environment within which civil society organizations (CSOs) operate in Bangladesh.
Laws of incorporation, enabling organizations to function with a management structure and legal status, include the following:
  • The Societies Registration Act, 1860;
  • The Trust Act, 1882; and
  • The Companies Act, 1913 (amended in 1994).
Regulatory laws have been introduced to encourage CSOs to register with government agencies irrespective of their legal status.  A CSO that is denied registration under these regulatory laws remains a CSO, if it is duly incorporated under any of the previously mentioned Acts.  Relevant “regulatory laws” include the following:
  • The Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies Ordinance, 1961;
  • The Foreign Donations (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Rules, 1978; and
  • The Microfinance Regulatory Law, 2006.
A brief description of each law follows below.
Societies Registration Act, 1860
During British rule, CSOs were regulated as “literary, scientific and charitable societies” through the Societies Registration Act. The Act provides for registration with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies under the Ministry of Commerce for the following types of societies:
  • charitable societies;
  • societies established for the promotion of science, literature or the fine arts;
  • societies established for instruction, the diffusion of knowledge and political education;
  • societies established for educational and medical services;
  • societies established for the foundation or maintenance of libraries or reading rooms for use by members of the public; and
  • public museums and galleries of paintings and other works of art, and collections of natural history, mechanical and philosophical inventions.
The Trust Act, 1882
This Act was designed to accommodate private trusts without affecting the already existing Muslim and Hindu laws for religious endowments. It is administered by the Registrar of Trusts and allows for autonomy of the organization as long as the trustees honor the terms and conditions of the Deed of Trust.
The Companies Act, 1913 (amended in 1994)
This Act provides legal status to non-profit companies. Some CSOs and foundations seek registration under the Act for the sake of convenience. The Registrar of Joint Stock Companies under the Ministry of Commerce is the registration authority.
Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies Ordinance, 1961
The Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies (Registration and Control) Ordinance was promulgated in 1961 “to expedite the registration and control of voluntary social welfare agencies and for matters ancillary thereto.” A “voluntary social welfare agency” is defined as an “organization, association or undertaking established by persons of their own free will for the purpose of rendering welfare services in any one or more of the fields mentioned in the schedule and depending for its resources on public subscriptions, donations or government aid.” The Director of the Department of Social Services (DOSS) under the Ministry of Social Welfare is the registration authority.
Foreign Donations (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Rules, 1978
This was promulgated in 1978 to regulate the receipt and expenditure of foreign donations by CSOs. CSOs are required to submit certain information to the government in a prescribed form to obtain approval for undertaking projects with donations received from outside of the country or from aid-giving agencies of foreign origin working inside the country. Prior approval is also required if a CSO wishes to use the services of a volunteer from outside the country.
Microfinance Regulatory Law, 2006
CSOs involved in micro-credit operations are to be registered with the Microfinance Regulatory Authority (MRA) under this law.

Pending NGO Legislative / Regulatory Initiatives

New Proposal of the Microcredit Regulatory Authority. In October 2012, the Microcredit Regulatory Authority (MRA) submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Finance of the Government of Bangladesh, requesting executive power to appoint administrators within microfinance NGOs.  The MRA also wants the power to abolish the governing body, re-constitute a new governing body, and appoint the CEO of microfinance NGOs.  The MRA is proposing that the administrator would initially be appointed for six months and, if necessary, for an additional six months.  Mr. Abdul Awal, Executive Officer of the Credit and Development Forum (an association of microfinance institutions) has expressed concern about the proposal, saying that the MRA may abuse its power.
New Government Regulatory Commission? In late August 2012, the government initiated the process of establishing a new 11 member commission, which, according to government officials, would be responsible for “bringing all non-governmental organizations under a single authority to hold them accountable and ensure transparency in their financial transactions.” The proposal to establish the commission, which came from the Ministry of Social Welfare, has been approved by the secretary-level Committee for Administrative Development and received support from the Ministry of Law. This commission would, reportedly, investigate any allegations of “anti-state” activities or “terror financing” carried out by NGOs and voluntary organizations registered under the various ministries and the NGO Affairs Bureau under the Prime Minister’s Office.
Draft Foreign Donations (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Act. The NGO Affairs Bureau, which is a regulatory body authorized to coordinate and regulate the activities of CSOs operating with foreign funding, released the Foreign Donations (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Act 2011 in January 2012 and has invited comment. The goal of the draft Act is to amend the 1978 Foreign Donations (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Ordinance and to integrate the 1982 Foreign Contributions (Regulation) Ordinance into it. The draft Act preserves many of the existing barriers to the receipt of foreign donations and contributions. In particular, the draft Act, if enacted, would:
  • Prohibit individuals and organizations from receiving foreign donations/contributions for the purpose of carrying out any voluntary activity without prior government approval.
  • Require all organizations wishing to receive and use foreign donations/contributions to register with the NGO Affairs Bureau.
  • Require all organizations seeking to carry out activities with foreign donations to secure advance project approval.
  • Require every NGO registered with the Bureau to establish a board of directors (consisting of at least 7 members) and a general board (consisting of 21 members).
  • Penalize NGOs if the Director General of the NGO Affairs Bureau believes that NGOs are engaged in activities which are "illegal or harmful for the country".
Two NGO umbrella bodies, the Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh (ADAB) and the Federation of NGOs in Bangladesh (FNB), submitted written comments on the draft Act to the NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB) in March.
On May 16, 2012 the NGOAB hosted a discussion with representatives of NGOs. NGOs shared their views and concerns with the draft Act. The Act is currently in the Prime Minister’s Office and will be placed before the Cabinet and Parliament after a review by the Ministry of Law.

Legal Analysis

Organizational Forms

Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Bangladesh may be either membership organizations or non-membership organizations. Membership organizations include indigenous and community-based organizations (CBOs), such as village-level clubs, mass organizations, religious organizations, and trade organizations. Many of these organizations are not registered. Registered membership organizations are generally registered under the Co-operative Societies Act. Non-membership organizations may be organized as a trust or as a non-profit company.
All CSOs can be grouped into three categories corresponding to regulatory laws, source of funds, and sphere of activities.
  • (a) The overwhelming majority of CSOs are recognized as voluntary social welfare organizations (VSWO). Typically, VSWOs are small and operate locally with funds mobilized from local donations and government grants. Activities are primarily implemented by local volunteers. As of December 2009, 56,966 VSWOs were registered with the Department of Social Services.
  • (b) Organizations that operate with grants from external sources are generally perceived as “development NGO(s)” and are registered with the NGO Affairs Bureau. Of the 2,535 organizations that were registered as of June 2010, 2,305 CSOs are of local origin and 230 are foreign/international organizations operating with an office in Bangladesh. VSWOs that receive donations from external sources are registered with the NGOAB as well. As of February 28, 2013, there are 2,209 NGOs registered with the NGOAB. The NGOAB had cancelled the registration of 525 NGOs as of January 11, 2012.
  • (c) As of July 2010, there were 527 CSOs working as microfinance institutions (MFIs). MFIs may also fall into either or both of the above categories.

Public Benefit Status

All CSOs are exempt from corporate tax under the provision of the Income Tax Ordinance of 1984.  Income generated from profit-earning activities must be spent for charitable purposes and not appropriated by any individual in the form of dividends.
Both corporations and individuals are able to claim a tax deduction for donations made for 22 designated public benefit purposes, including donations for old age homes, forestation, waste treatment plants, care for the disabled, potable water supply, education for orphans and street children, specialized hospitals for treatment of the extreme poor, public universities, etc.  Corporate donors may deduct the amount of the donation up to 10% of their taxable income. Individual donors may deduct the amount of the donation up to 20% of their taxable income, but not exceeding Taka 100,000 (approximately US $1,380).  Claiming a tax deduction requires prior approval from the National Board of Revenue (NBR) under the Ministry of Finance. The NBR gives a tax exemption certificate if the concerned donor fulfills all obligations as per the provisions of the labor law and pays all other taxes.

Barriers to Entry

Several barriers to the formation, establishment and registration of CSOs are worthy of mention.
First, the required number of minimum members is inordinately high.  To register under the Companies Act as a non-profit company, an organization must have a minimum of 11 members.  To register under the Societies Registration Act (SRA) as a society, an organization must have at least three times the number of members in the Executive Committee (EC); since CSOs registered under SRA must have an EC of at least seven members, it follow that a society must have at least 21 founding members.  For organizations registered under the Trust Act, the minimum number of members (Trustees) is five, and the number of general members must be at least three times more than the number of Trustees, that is at least 15. 
Second, membership of CSOs, irrespective of where they register, is limited to adult citizens of Bangladesh.  Thus, non-citizens and minors are excluded from founding or belonging to CSOs.  In addition, government employees are barred from becoming office bearers (members of executive committees).
Third, the organization must possess a furnished office with proper address and signboard to be eligible for registration.  This amounts to an asset requirement and acts as a substantial barrier to registration.
Fourth, for registration under the SRA and the Companies Act, an organization must pay a registration fee of Taka 2,000 (approx. US $28) and Taka 15,000 (approx. US $207) respectively.  For trusts with assets of Taka 20,000 (approx. US $276) or less, the trust must pay a fee of Taka 2,540 (approx. US $35) for registration under the Trust Act. The fee is higher for higher levels of the value of assets.
Fifth, CSOs that seek funding from external sources must register, additionally, with the NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB), which operates within the Ministry of Establishment.  Banks do not allow the opening of an account by any organization that does not possess valid registration and will not disburse any foreign funds without prior approval from the NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB) and a letter of intent from the donor. For registration with the NGOAB, the organization must submit, in addition to an application, particulars of their bank account, a letter of intent from the donor, a copy of an annual activity report, and a copy of a financial audit report. NGOAB has to approve it within 90 days (60 days in case of renewal of registration) or may seek further clarification. The registration fee is Taka 10,000 (approx. US $138). 
Sixth and finally, the registration process itself is complicated by bureaucratic hurdles and delays.  Notably:
  • Registration requires clearance from the Ministry of Home Affairs, which must be accomplished within 60 days, though in practice it takes longer.
  • Registration is sometimes delayed on the pretext of police verification, and registration is sometimes denied due to an adverse police report corresponding to “prejudicial activities.” Prior clearance from National Security Intelligence (NSI) was recently made mandatory for registration under the SRA. It is an “open secret” that organizations pay bribes to officials of the registration authority in different forms to avoid delay and harassment.
  • Regarding registration with the NGO Affairs Bureau, the NGOAB reserves the right to reject an application if it is not “satisfied” with the objectives, constitution, or plan of operation; CSOs do not have a right to appeal.  Moreover, the registration is valid only for five years. During this period, the NGOAB has the power to cancel the registration.  To renew the registration, a fresh application for registration for another five year period must be submitted six months prior to the expiration date.

Barriers to Operational Activity

The government tends to see itself as the sole organ responsible for development and often makes stringent rules and regulations for CSOs in the field of development that burden their operational activities. CSOs are often under attack by the government bureaucracy and are criticized for the “privatization of development.” CSOs that are critical of government policies are sometimes branded as anti-state and are harassed in many ways, including the blocking of disbursement of foreign funds, delays of project approval, and even cancellation of registration.
While the facilitating role of the government was manifested with the creation of the NGOAB for one-stop service and easing of regulatory measures, the general attitude of some in the bureaucracy toward the voluntary sector remains largely passive and hostile. The government often perceives CSOs as a competitor for scarce overseas development assistance (ODA).
The government can suspend activities of a CSO or even cancel its registration for the non-submission of reports to its respective registration authority. So far, the NGOAB has cancelled the registration of 334 CSOs for alleged "unlawful activities" and cancellation for another 90 CSOs is being processed. Punitive measures can also be taken if the CSO is accused of a criminal offence. The wide scope of crimes punishable by death under the Anti-Terrorism Act, including "financing terrorist activities," carries a tremendous risk of irreversible miscarriage of justice, which may chill CSO members from engaging in certain economic activities.

Internal Affairs 

Detailed requirements apply to the internal structure and affairs of all CSOs.  Members of all CSOs, except cooperative societies, as per provision of their article of association, elect an Executive Committee (EC) or governing body comprising seven to 11 members, including a Chair, a General Secretary, and a Treasurer. This is applicable to all organizations irrespective of where they are registered.
An annual financial audit by a recognized firm is mandatory. At present, there are 71 audit firms registered with the NGOAB, from which a CSO has to choose for its audit.
Officials from the registration authority may attend EC meetings or the Annual General Meetings (AGMs), especially if invited in case of disputes among members. In case of a dispute, the registration authority may replace the existing EC with a new one of its choice. The EC is responsible for financial management through designated staff, and must function within the budget limits approved by the registration authority. Any change in the program and the budget requires prior approval from the authority.
The CSO is free to open an account in any scheduled bank. Only one bank account can be maintained for receiving foreign donations. Separate bank accounts for separate projects may be maintained for internal transactions after the donations are received.
The 1961 Voluntary Social Welfare Agencies Ordinance gives the government power to intervene in the management structure of a voluntary social welfare organization (VSWO). The DOSS, as the registration authority, is empowered to suspend the Executive Committee (EC) of a VSWO without giving any right to appeal, but the governing body of a VSWO cannot dissolve itself without the approval of the DOSS.

Reporting Obligations

CSOs must submit activity reports and audited financial reports of the preceding year, and activity plans (programs) and the budgets of the coming year to their respective registration authority on an annual basis.  The government can suspend activities of a CSO or even cancel its registration for non-submission of reports to its respective registration authority.

Government Harassment

CSOs are sometimes subject to government harassment (e.g., frequent inspections, requests for documents, etc.) for political reasons (for example, where the government feels threatened by the advocacy work of a CSO).  The affected CSO may find it difficult to access legal remedies, since the justice system is cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive.

Involuntary Dissolution

In case of involuntary dissolution, the government assumes ownership of the remaining assets and may re-constitute the Executive Committee for running the CSO.

Barriers to Speech / Advocacy

While there are no legal barriers limiting expressive or advocacy activities, CSOs are sometimes subject to government harassment in the form of frequent inspections or requests for documents (for example, where the government feels threatened by the advocacy work of a CSO).  The affected CSO may find it difficult to access legal remedies, since the justice system is cumbersome, time consuming, and expensive.  In other cases, the government may brand certain CSOs as “partisan” where these CSOs are critical of governmental actions and practices, such as ethnic discrimination, anti-poor labor law and wage policy, commercial extraction of natural resources, degradation of environment, or corruption.

Barriers to International Contact

CSOs are free to interact and cooperate among themselves and with donor agencies at home and abroad through any means of communication. There is no bar to attending conferences inside or outside the country. CSOs participate in UN and other international conferences as important stakeholders.

Barriers to Resources

The key legal barrier to CSO resources in Bangladesh relates to foreign funding.  As mentioned previously, the government established the NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB) within the Ministry of Establishment to coordinate and regulate the activities of CSOs operating with foreign funding. A CSO seeking to receive or use foreign donations must obtain approval, known as the FD Registration, from the NGOAB.  Separate approval for all projects is required from the NGOAB, irrespective of prior registration by any other authority. The NGOAB is now located in the Prime Minister’s Office and is responsible for all contact with CSOs under the Foreign Donations Regulation Rules, 1978.

Reports

UN Universal Periodic Review Reports Universal Periodic Review: Bangladesh (2009)
Reports of UN Special Rapporteurs Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders (2011)
U.S. State Department 2010 Human Rights Report: Bangladesh
Failed States Index Reports Foreign Policy: Failed States Index 2012
IMF Country Reports Bangladesh and the IMF
International Center for Not-for-Profit Law Online Library Bangladesh

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

ဗုဒၶဘာသာၿမန္မာမ်ားအတြက္ဖြဲ႔စည္းထားေသာ ၉၆၉တုိ႔ေပါက္ေဖၚၾကီးမ်ားအတြက္ ဖုံးေဖာ္အဖြဲ႔ ၾကီးၿဖစ္မွာစုိးရတယ္



ၿမန္မာၿပည္၏ ဒီမုိကေရစီခရီးလမ္းအစမွာ ၿပည္သူတုိ႔ရဲ႕တက္ၾကြ နဳိးၾကား လာမွဳဟာ တုိင္းၿပည္ အတြက္ အလြန္အား ရေကာင္းတဲ႔ အခ်က္ၿဖစ္ တယ္။ ထုိကဲ႔သုိ႔ပြင္႔လင္းလာမွဳဟာ ေကာင္းမြန္ ေသာ္ လည္း ကာလံ၊ေဒသံ၊ အဂၢံ၊ ဓနံ ဆုိတဲ႔ အခ်က္ေတြကုိ မၾကည္႔ဘဲ ဆႏၵေစာခဲ႔တဲ႔ အတြက္ အခ်ို႕ေန ရာ ေတြမွာ တုိင္းၿပည္ကုိ ေနာက္ၿပန္ဆြဲဖုိ႔ လုံေလာက္တဲ႔ အေၿခအေနေတြကုိ ေတြ႔ေနရတယ္။
တစ္ခ်ိန္ကနဳိင္ငံေတာ္ကုိ ကုိယ္ပုိင္ပစၥည္းလုိ လက္၀ါးၾကီးအုပ္ခဲ႔တဲ႔ အာဏာရွင္ အေဟာင္းေတြ ရယ္ သူတုိ႔ႏွင္႔ လက္သိပ္ ထုိးေၿပလည္ခဲ႔တဲ႔ ခရုိနီေတြရယ္ ေက်းဇူးရွင္ၾကီးလုိ႔သတ္မွတ္ခံရတဲ႔ တရုတ္နဳိင္ငံ ရဲ႕အက်ိဳးစီးပြါး ေတြရယ္ကုိ ဒီမုိကေရစီလမ္းအစမွာ ဆႏၵေစာၿပီးထိပ္တုိက္ေတြ႔ အေရးယူဖုိ႔ၾကံစည္ ခဲ႔တာ ဟာ လမေစ႔ဘဲေမြးတဲ႔ ကေလးရ႕ဲက်န္း မာေရးလုိမ်ဳိး တုိင္းၿပည္ရဲ႕ ဒီမုိကေရစီ လမ္းေၾကာင္းႏွင္႔ ၿပည္သူ တုိ႔ ဘ၀ကုိ တုိးတက္ေအာင္ မလုပ္နဳိင္ ဘဲ ေနာက္ၿပန္္မလွည္႔ ဖုိ႔ေတာင္ မနည္းရုန္းကန္ေန ရ တယ္။

Sunday, May 19, 2013

Rohingya History By Dr. Zamiruddin

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Prophet Mohamed (SS:)'s Ewer ( Lota ): တမန္ေတာ္ျမတ္ႀကီး(ဆြ)ရဲ့ လိုတာ ေတာ္ျမတ္...

Prophet Mohamed (SS:)'s Ewer  ( Lota ): တမန္ေတာ္ျမတ္ႀကီး(ဆြ)ရဲ့ လိုတာ ေတာ္ျမတ္...



The old time of Zam Zam well: ေရွးတုန္းက ဇမ္ဇမ္ ေရတြင္းေတာ္...

 

New Design of Makkah: ေနာက္ဆုံးမကၠဟ္ ဒီဇုိင္းပုံ